sudo fdisk /dev/sda
m for help.
n to make a partition.
t to mark the partition type (see IDs below).
w to write the changes to the disk.
Note the asterisk marking the boot partition.
fdisk will not help with a GPT formatted drive. For this, use gdisk, which is mostly the same.
Now that we have a partition, we can make it into a fileSystem. Most will use:
sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdc1
or if you’re making a swap partition, you can use:
sudo mkswap /dev/sdb2
or for the reiser fileSystem, we can use:
sudo mkreiserfs /dev/sdc2
File System Types
|ext2||No journaling means that the file offers no crash recovery.|
|ext4||Journaling and handles files of up to 16TB.|
|reiserfs||Journalin and stable.|
|btrfs||Reliable and stable|
|XFS||Journaling, great for large files.|
|VFAT||Comptable with Windows, like FAT32|
sudo parted /dev/sdb
Look at physical and virtual partitions:
or divide things by inode - the thing which records where files are?
Examine a fileSystem with:
sudo dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 | less
There are multiple programs which work mostly the same way.
sudo tune2fs -c 30 /dev/sda1
This will check sda1 every 30 boots. It can also be checked every month.
sudo tune2fs -i 1m /dev/sda1
This thing can also make a new label for the System:
sudo tune2fs -L new_name /dev/sdb3
Start by unmounting the fileSystem.
sudo umount /dev/sdc1
Then it’s time to check.
sudo fsck /dev/sdc1
And possibly repair damage:
e2fsck -p /dev/sdc1
or the same with:
sudo debugfs /dev/sdc1
You can mount with a specified filetype with:
sudo mount -t ext3 /dev/sdc2 /mnt/stick
or if you don’t know the type, just try the lot:
sudo mount -a /dev/sdc1 /mnt/stick
xfs and zfs can only be expanded.
NB: When I followed these instructions, the process destroyed my data. Seemed fine on the YouTube video.
Check the fileSystem’s health:
sudo e2fsck -f /dev/sdb1
Resize the file System to something smaller than what you want, so here I want 500G and so I resize to 450 G.
resize2fs /dev/sdb1 450G
Then delete the partition with either gdisk or fdisk, depending upon the layout.
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb
Then make a new fileSystem of the desired type with:
And finally resize to the full size you want:
sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb1
And then check your disk again with e2fsck.
(The e2fsck saved my disk in the end, YMMV)
Let’s start with names. PV = ‘Physical Volume’, VG = ‘Volume Group’, and LV = ‘Logical Volume’.
Now we can create a volume group out of sdb2 and sdc3:
sudo vgcreate my-new-vg /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdc3
Then make a new logical volume out of the volume group:
sudo lvcreate -n my-new-lv my-new-vg
Then have a look at all logical volumes: